| Thomas H. Morgan and his students,
Alfred H. Sturtevant, Calvin B. Bridges and Hermann J. Muller, were interested
in what we would today call "classical genetics". For these studies,
the flies' short life cycle, its ease of culturing and large progeny number
were clearly advantageous. By doing controlled crosses with different mutants,
they set up the first linkage maps and identified chromosomes as carriers
of hereditary material, for which the Nobel Prize was awarded in 1933 to
Thomas Hunt Morgan.
In 1915, Morgan and his students summarized their work in a monograph "The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity". This book provided the foundation for modern genetics by laying out a comprehensive argument for interpreting the chromosomes as the material basis of inheritance.